Under the agreement, Nepalese migrant workers who wish to work in Malaysia do not have to pay a fee to work there. Employers are responsible for all expenses on behalf of Nepalese workers, including expenses for reflection services, two-way tickets for travel to Malaysia, visa fees, medical check-up and worker safety investigation. The first investments of workers in medical examinations and security checks will be reimbursed during the first month of their activity in Malaysia. In Nepal, the ILO is working with the Ministry of Labour and Employment, trade union and employers` organizations, research institutes and civil society organisations to improve the overall management of labour migration, combat human trafficking and ensure the protection and decent employment conditions of Nepalese migrant workers at all stages of their migration cycle. In October 2018, Nepal signed a labour agreement with Malaysia, the preferred target for Nepalese migrant workers. The ILO is the only UN organization with a constitutional mandate to protect migrant workers, and it is doing so as part of its overall goal of achieving decent work for all. In addition to the adoption of international labour standards covering a wide range of employment-related areas (which, regardless of nationality, apply to all people in the workplace), it has played a pioneering role as a forerunner of specific international conventions on migration policy and the protection of migrant workers. These include the Employment Migration Convention (revised), 1949 (No. 97) and the Migrant Workers` Convention (provision supplement), 1975 (No.
143). The four sections of the ILO – standards, employment, social protection and social dialogue – work on labour immigration. The ILO also encourages tripartite participation, the participation of governments, employers and workers in the formulation and implementation of migration policies and programmes. Migration for foreign employment has become an important source of income for many Nepalese households. A recent report – Labour Migration for Employment: A Status Report for Nepal 2013/14 shows that the number of migrants leaving Nepal to find work is increasing year by year. In the last fiscal year 2014, more than 520,000 work permits were issued to Nepalis who plan to work abroad. Malaysia is now the top destination for Nepalese migrants, closely followed by Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. The same report concluded that employment abroad is heavily dominated by men: about 95% of all work permits are issued to men. Other data collecting those working in India (where no work permit is required) or those travelling abroad through informal channels suggest that women`s migration could account for up to 12% of total staff abroad. The Nepalese government has signed bilateral employment contracts with five major destination countries: the Kingdom of Bahrain (29 April 2008), the State of Qatar (21 April 2005), the United Arab Emirates (3 July 2007), the Republic of Korea (23 July 2007) and Japan (2009).
The government is also considering signing employment contracts with Dem Oman, Lebanon and Malaysia. The Nepalese government has signed bilateral labour contracts with a small number of important target countries, namely Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, the Republic of Korea, the Kingdom of Bahrain, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia and Mauritius.